Thursday, January 12, 2012


Tiny Macau, a special administrative region of China, has seen its low-key colonial character give way to massive commercial and tourist development.

The former Portuguese colony, a near neighbour of Hong Kong, occupies a small peninsula and two islands off China's southern coast.

Its economy revolves around tourism. Macau has capitalised on its long history as a gambling centre, drawing many thousands of visitors from China and Hong Kong.

Foreign casino companies have invested heavily since Hong Kong tycoon Stanley Ho's decades-long monopoly on the gaming industry ended in 2002. New "mega-casinos", which include major hotel developments, have replaced traditional gambling dens.

In 2006 the returns from the casino boom surpassed the revenues of the US gambling mecca, Las Vegas. But analysts warn that Macau risks relying too much on the industry.

Some politicians and academics say most locals have yet to benefit from the economic boom.

The former colony reverted to Chinese sovereignty in 1999 after 400 years of Portuguese rule. Beijing promised to uphold Western-style freedoms for at least 50 years.

Although it is part of China, Macau is governed under the "one country, two systems" principle, under which it has a large degree of autonomy.

Pro-reform forces are less vocal in Macau than in Hong Kong. A new state security law came into effect in 2009 with very little opposition, whereas attempts by the Chinese government to introduce a similar law in Hong Kong in 2003 triggered mass protests.

The campaign for universal suffrage in Hong Kong is being watched with keen interest in Macau. China is unlikely to grant greater democratic rights unless consistent pressure is applied by pro-democract campaigners - something that seems far less likely to happen in Macau than in Hong Kong.

Portuguese seafarers settled in the area in the 1500s. Initially, the colony prospered on the lucrative returns from regional trade, and European-style mansions and churches mushroomed.

Trade dwindled from the 1600s, but the introduction of licensed gambling in the mid 1800s revived Macau's fortunes.

    * Territory: Macau
    * Status: Semi-autonomous, special administrative region of China
    * Population: 543,600 (World Bank, 2010)
    * Area: 23.8 sq km (9 sq miles)
    * Major languages: Chinese (mainly Cantonese), Portuguese (both official)
    * Major religions: Buddhism, Christianity
    * Life expectancy: 79 (men), 84 (women) (UN)
    * Monetary unit: 1 pataca = 100 avos
    * Main exports: Clothing, textiles
    * GNI per capita: $40,030 (World Bank, 2009)
    * Internet domain: .mo
    * International dialling code: +853

Chief executive: Fernando Chui Sai On
Fernando Chui succeeded Edmund Ho in December 2009 to become the territory's second chief executive since the former Portuguese territory reverted to Chinese rule.

He was hand-picked by Beijing to be Mr Ho's successor and stood unopposed, gaining 282 out of 300 possible votes from Macau's Beijing-approved committee of politicians and businessmen. Ordinary citizens have no direct say in the appointment of their chief executive.

Mr Chui belongs to one of Macau's elite families - as did his predecessor - in a territory known for its close links between government and business.

US-educated, he was a public health administrator before going into politics. He served as Macau's Secretary for Social Affairs and Culture for 10 years until May 2009, when he resigned in order to run for the office of chief executive.

He has pledged to diversify Macau's economy - which is currently heavily dependent on the gambling industry - into sectors such as logistics.

From : BBC News