Saturday, June 23, 2012

Raja Pervaiz Ashraf

Raja Pervez Ashraf (Urdu, Punjabi: راجہ پرویز اشرف; born 26 December 1950) is a Pakistani politician who is the 17th and current Prime Minister of Pakistan since June 2012. He was Federal Minister for Water and Power in the Yousaf Raza Gillani-led cabinet from March 2008 to February 2011. He is a senior leader of the Pakistan Peoples Party from Rawalpindi District.

Early Life
Raja Pervaiz Ashraf 1st (Current) PAKRAL RAJPUT PM OF PAKISTAN. Raja Pervaiz Ashraf was born on December 26, 1950 in Sanghar, Sindh. He graduated from University of Sindh in 1970 and worked in agriculture before entering politics.

Political career
Ashraf was twice elected as a Member of the National Assembly of Pakistan from his constituency of Gujar Khan, Rawalpindi District. Most recently, he won re-election in the February 2008 elections. He became the head of the water and power ministry in the coalition government of PPP, PML-N, ANP, JUI-F and MQM formed after 2008 elections. In the position he faced heavy criticism for repeatedly promising the country's power crisis would be over "by December" as the country suffered regular blackouts. He oversaw expensive "rental power" projects that generated very little power, earning the nickname "Raja Rental" in the Pakistani media. He has been accused of receiving kickbacks in the rental power projects, and of using illegal money to buy foreign property. He has denied wrongdoing, and as of June 2012, is defending himself before the Supreme Court. No official charges have been made against him. However, the Court did revoke his power as the minister for water and power in February 2011. Subsequently, he was appointed to the ministry of information and technology.

On 26 April 2012, Prime Minister Yousaf Raza Gillani was convicted of being in contempt of court for refusing to bring charges against President Asif Ali Zardari On 19 June 2012, he was retroactively ruled ineligible to hold the office by the Supreme Court. The ruling Pakistan People's Party nominated textile minister Makhdoom Shahabuddin to replace Gillani, but the nomination failed when the military issued a warrant for Shahabuddin's arrest on drug charges. Ashraf was then selected as the party's next option.

On 22 June 2012, Raja Pervez Ashraf was elected as the 17th Prime Minister of Pakistan by a 211-89 vote. Ashraf and his cabinet were sworn in on the same day. His selection as Prime Minister restored the country's government after several days of turmoil where official the country was without a government. The Associated Press said Ashraf's election was "unlikely to calm the tensions roiling the country" and noted that many observers expected him be eventually be ousted like his predecessor. Political analyst Raza Rumi said Ashraf was likely choosen by the PPP because they knew he would not last long.

Immediately after his election, Ashraf said that the economy, inflation, and the country's power crisis would be his top concerns. "Our country cannot afford politics of confrontation at this time," he said. He also said he wanted to deal with the United States on "an equal footing." However, he will likely have to deal with the court's demands to charge Zardari before doing much else.

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Federico Franco

Luis Federico Franco Gómez (born July 24, 1962) is the current President of Paraguay. A member of the Authentic Radical Liberal Party (PLRA), he was elected as Vice President of Paraguay in the 2008 presidential election as the running mate of Fernando Lugo. Following Lugo's impeachment by the Senate on June 22, 2012, Franco ascended to the Presidency.

Franco is a surgeon by profession. He is the brother of Julio César Franco, current senator and former chairman of Authentic Radical Liberal Party, and also a former Vice President. Federico Franco is also former chairman of PLRA and was Governor of Central Department from 2003 to 2008.

Early Life
Federico Franco was born in the city of Asunción on July 27, 1962. He was married on February 20, 1982 to Emilia Alfaro, elected deputy of Paraguay for the period 2008–2013. He is the father of four children, Luis Federico Franco, Claudia Vanessa, Ivan Alexander and Enzo Sebastian.

Franco studied primary school in the Dominican Republic, its baseline were conducted at the National College of the Capital. His secondary education took place in the Apostolic College San Jose, all in Asunción.

As for the tertiary level, he hoped to become a doctor so he entered the Faculty of Medical Sciences, National University of Asuncion. Upon completion of the coursework in 1986 he received the title of Surgeon with an overall average of 4.56 to 5.00. Then he obtained a graduate degree in Internal Medicine.

Political Career
Federico Franco was governor of the Central department during the 2003–2008 period, for the Authentic Radical Liberal Party. The party discussed in 2008 if they should support the ticket of Lugo in the presidential election or share the candidacy with him; the second option prevailed and Franco run for the vice-presidency under Lugo's ticket. He was critical of the presidency of Lugo, such as with the management of lands and the 2009 controversy about Lugo's son.

Lugo was removed from office on June 22, 2012, by a controversial impeachment in the Congress, which is considered by UNASUR as a coup d'État. Federico Franco became the new president then, taking the oath of office an hour later. He would complete Lugo's mandate, up to August 2013.

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Monday, June 18, 2012

Mohamed Morsi

Mohamed Morsi Isa al-Ayyat (Arabic: محمد مرسى عيسى العياط, born 20 August 1951) is an Egyptian politician who has been Chairman of the Freedom and Justice Party (FJP), a political party that was founded by the Muslim Brotherhood after the 2011 Egyptian revolution, since April 30, 2011. He is standing as the FJP's candidate for the May–June 2012 presidential election. From 2000 to 2005, he was a Member of Parliament. The Muslim Brotherhood's tally of results in the June 2012 runoff election claim that Morsi was elected President of Egypt, though the official result has yet to have been announced.

Morsi was born in Sharquia. He received a Bachelor's and Master's Degree in Engineering from Cairo University in 1975 and 1978. He received his Ph.D. in Engineering from the University of Southern California in 1982. He was an Assistant Professor at California State University, Northridge from 1982 to 1985. In 1985 returned to Egypt to teach at Zagazig University. His children were born in California and are U.S. citizens.

Political career
Morsi served as a Member of Parliament from 2000 to 2005; he was elected as an independent candidate because the Brotherhood was technically barred from running candidates for office under President Hosni Mubarak. He was a member of the Guidance Office of the Muslim Brotherhood until the foundation of the Freedom and Justice Party in 2011, at which point he was elected by the MB's Guidance Office to be the first president of the new party.

After Khairat El-Shater was disqualified from the 2012 presidential election, Morsi, who was initially nominated as a backup candidate, emerged as the new Muslim Brotherhood candidate.

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Antonis Samaras

Antonis Samaras (Greek: Αντώνης Σαμαράς, pronounced [anˈdonis samaˈras]; born 23 May 1951) is a Greek economist and politician who has been leader of New Democracy, Greece's major conservative party, since 2009. A Member of Parliament for Messenia, he was Minister of Finance in 1989, then Minister of Foreign Affairs from 1989 to 1990 and again from 1990 to 1992. Later, he was Minister of Culture in 2009. He was best known for the 1993 controversy, when he effectively caused the New Democracy government, of which he was a member, to fall from power. In spite of this he rejoined the party in 2004 and was elected to its leadership in a closely fought intra-party election in late 2009. He is the 7th leader of the party since it was founded in 1974.

Born in Athens, Samaras attended school in the Athens College (founded by his maternal greatgrandfather, Stephanos Deltas, and Emmanouil Benakis, Deltas' father-in-law), and graduated from Amherst College in 1974 with a degree in economics, and then from Harvard University in 1976 with an MBA. He is a member of the Greek Parliament for the prefecture of Messenia (1977–1996 and 2007–present) as well as a former Finance, Foreign, and Culture Minister. He is the son of the late Dr. Constantine Samaras, Professor of Cardiology, and the late Lena, née Zannas, a maternal granddaughter of author Penelope Delta. His brother, Alexander, is an architect. His paternal uncle, George Samaras, was a long-standing member of Parliament for Messenia in the 1950s and '60s.

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Tuesday, June 5, 2012

Aung San

Bogyoke (General) Aung San (13 February 1915 – 19 July 1947) was a Burmese revolutionary, nationalist, and founder of the modern Burmese army (Tatmadaw), and considered to be the Father of (modern-day) Burma.

He was a founder of the Communist Party of Burma and was instrumental in bringing about Burma's independence from British colonial rule in Burma, but was assassinated six months before independence. He is recognized as the leading architect of independence, and the founder of the Union of Burma. Affectionately known as "Bogyoke" (General), Aung San is still widely admired by the Burmese people, and his name is still invoked in Burmese politics to this day.

Aung San had a daughter, Aung San Suu Kyi, who is a recipient of a Nobel Peace an a Burmese politician.

Aung San was born to U Pha, a lawyer, and his wife Daw Suu in Natmauk, Magway District, in central Burma on 13 February 1915. His family was already well known in the Burmese resistance movement; his great uncle Bo Min Yaung fought against the British annexation of Burma in 1886.

Aung San received his primary education at a Buddhist monastic school in Natmauk, and secondary education at Yenangyaung High School. He went to Rangoon University (now the University of Yangon) and received a B.A. degree in English Literature, Modern History, and Political Science in 1938.

Struggle for Independence
After Aung San entered Rangoon University in 1933, he quickly became a student leader. He was elected to the executive committee of the Rangoon University Students' Union (RUSU). He then became editor of their magazine Oway (Peacock's Call).

In February 1936, he was threatened with expulsion from the university, along with U Nu, for refusing to reveal the name of the author of the article Hell Hound At Large, which criticized a senior University official. This led to the Second University Students' Strike and the university authorities subsequently retracted their expulsion orders. In 1938, Aung San was elected president of both the Rangoon University Student Union (RUSU) and the All-Burma Students Union (ABSU), formed after the strike spread to Mandalay. In the same year, the government appointed him as a student representative on the Rangoon University Act Amendment Committee.

In October 1938, Aung San left his law classes and entered national politics. At this point, he was anti-British, and staunchly anti-imperialist. He became a Thakin (lord or master – a politically motivated title that proclaimed that the Burmese people were the true masters of their country, not the colonial rulers who had usurped the title for their exclusive use) when he joined the Dobama Asiayone (Our Burma Union), and acted as their general secretary until August 1940. While in this role, he helped organize a series of countrywide strikes that became known as ME 1300 Revolution (Htaung thoun ya byei ayeidawbon), named after the Burmese calendar year.

He also helped found another nationalist organization, the Freedom Bloc (Bama-htwet-yat Gaing), by forming an alliance between the Dobama, the ABSU, politically active monks and Dr Ba Maw's Sinyètha (Poor Man's) Party, and became its general secretary. What remains relatively unknown is the fact that he also became a founder member and first secretary-general of the Communist Party of Burma (CPB) in August 1939. Shortly afterwards he co-founded the People's Revolutionary Party, renamed the Socialist Party after the Second World War. In March 1940, he attended the Indian National Congress Assembly in Ramgarh, India. However, the government issued a warrant for his arrest due to Thakin attempts to organize a revolt against the British and he had to flee Burma. He went first to China, seeking assistance from the government there (China was still under nationalist government during World War II), but he was intercepted by the Japanese military occupiers in Amoy, and was convinced by them to go to Japan instead.

On 19 July 1947, a gang of armed paramilitaries of former Prime Minister U Saw[citation needed] broke into the Secretariat Building in downtown Rangoon during a meeting of the Executive Council (the shadow government established by the British in preparation for the transfer of power) and assassinated Aung San and six of his cabinet ministers, including his older brother Ba Win, father of Sein Win leader of the government-in-exile, the National Coalition Government of the Union of Burma (NCGUB). A cabinet secretary and a bodyguard were also killed. U Saw was subsequently tried and hanged. During his trial a number of middle-ranking British army officers were implicated in the plot; they also were tried and imprisoned. Rumours of higher-level British involvement, and/or involvement by Ne Win, Aung San's long-term rival for leadership within the AFPFL, are unproven and probably unfounded.

While he was War Minister in 1942, Aung San met and married Khin Kyi, and around the same time her sister met and married Thakin Than Tun, the Communist leader. Aung San and Khin Kyi had four children. Their youngest surviving child, Aung San Suu Kyi, is a Nobel Peace Prize laureate and leader of the Burmese Opposition, the National League for Democracy (NLD), and was until 13 November 2010, held under house arrest by the military regime. Their second son, Aung San Lin, died at age eight, when he drowned in an ornamental lake in the grounds of the house. The elder, Aung San Oo, is an engineer working in the United States and has disagreed with his sister's political activities. Their youngest daughter, Aung San Chit, born in September 1946, died a few days after her birth. Aung San's wife Daw Khin Kyi died on 27 December 1988.

His place in history as the Architect of Burmese Independence and a national hero is assured both from his own legacy and due to the activities of his daughter. Aung San Suu Kyi was only two when her father died. A martyrs' mausoleum was built at the foot of the Shwedagon Pagoda and 19 July was designated Martyr's Day (Azani nei), a public holiday. His literary work entitled "Burma's Challenge" was likewise popular.

Aung San's name had been invoked by successive Burmese governments since independence until the military regime in the 1990s tried to eradicate all traces of Aung San's memory. Nevertheless, several statues of him adorn the former capital Yangon and his portrait still has pride of place in many homes and offices throughout the country. Scott Market, Yangon's most famous, was renamed Bogyoke Market in his memory, and Commissioner Road was retitled Bogyoke Aung San Road after independence. These names have been retained. Many towns and cities in Burma have thoroughfares and parks named after him. His portrait was held up everywhere during the 8888 Uprising in 1988 and used as a rallying point. Following the 8888 Uprising, the government redesigned the national currency, the kyat, removing his picture and replacing it with scenes of Burmese life.

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